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Pros and Cons of Solid-State Batteries

There are two types of batteries; lithium-ion batteries and solid-state batteries. Solid-state batteries are batteries that use solid electrolytes instead of liquid electrolytes. Liquid electrolytes are mostly found in traditional batteries. Solid-state batteries have several advantages and limitations.

Construction of a Solid-state Battery and How It Works

The anode and cathode of the battery are made up of electrically conductive materials. A solid electrolyte is between the two electrodes. Lithium ions move through the solid electrolyte between the electrodes. Most common solid electrolytes used in making solid-state batteries include phosphates, sulfides, oxides, polysiloxane, and polyesters.

The movement of charged particles in a particular direction produces current. The battery is said to be charging when the ions move from the cathode to the anode

Pros of Solid-state Batteries

Solid state batteries have several pros, including the following.

Solid-state Batteries Are Safer Than Liquid-state Batteries

They do not have a flammable liquid that might spill and catch fire. Solid-state batteries are lighter in weight- the solid electrolytes used are lighter than liquid electrolytes used in lithium-ion batteries.

They Can Perform Under a High Range of Temperatures

Unlike liquid lithium-ion batteries, which use liquids, solid electrolytes in solid-state batteries cannot freeze under low temperatures. Freezing of the electrolyte hinders the current flow, thus inconvenient and inefficient. At high temperatures, in cases of overheating, lithium-ion batteries have the risk of exploding. Solid-state batteries do not have such a risk.

Are More Durable Than Lithium-ion Batteries

Solid electrolytes have a longer life cycle than liquid electrolytes.

Do Not Contain Any Volatile or Toxic Elements

Compared to liquid lithium-ion batteries- lithium-ion batteries contain toxic materials such as; nickel compounds, dimethoxyethane, lithium compounds, etc. lithium-ion batteries are volatile because the electrodes in the battery are submerged in a liquid electrolyte. The electrolyte allows for ions, lithium salt, and organic solvents. These organic solvents are the most volatile elements in lithium-ion batteries. Solid-state batteries do not face this challenge since they use a solid electrolyte.

Are More Reliable

This is mainly because they have more excellent electrochemical stability. The greater the stability, the more reliable the battery is. Liquid electrolytes and the electrodes used in lithium-ion batteries make it challenging to achieve higher electrochemical stability.

Can Be Easily Recycled

The entire battery can be recycled without being separated into the comprising components. They are eco-friendly.

Two Times More Energy Density

This is possible because solid-state batteries enable the use of pure lithium metal as one of the electrodes. In lithium-ion batteries, the electrode is made of lithium-infused graphite, which is heavier than a pure lithium electrode.

Limitations of a Solid-state Battery

High Resistance At the Electrode and Solid Electrolyte

This negatively affects the rates of charging and discharging.

High Cost of Manufacture

Experts have proven that solid state lithium battery costs eight times more to fabricate than a liquid lithium-ion battery.

Scarce Materials

Availability of materials for making solid-state batteries includes ceramics, such as oxides, sulfides, and solid polymers. They are expensive to source, thus making it challenging to implement solid-state batteries.

Conclusion

Solid-state lithium batteries are the future of batteries, considering that they are recyclable, efficient, convenient, reliable, and recyclable. Solid-state lithium batteries are being used in pacemakers, Radio Frequency Identification, and wearable devices. They have been proven safer and with higher density but at a higher cost. On the other hand, Liquid lithium-ion batteries are inconvenient with the changing technology. They damage under high temperatures and freeze under low temperatures. Lithium-ion batteries hold a 90% chance of exploding, especially in smartphones that overheat.

Solid-state lithium batteries have more advantages than limitations. If the industry can curb the cost of manufacturing challenges, solid-state batteries will rise to the challenge. Major automobile companies aim to sell vehicles with solid-state lithium batteries by the year 2025. This will reduce the explosion of cars in accidents due to liquid lithium-ion batteries used in car batteries.

The rise of electric vehicles requires batteries that charge faster, store more energy, and ensure safety. Solid-state lithium batteries have all of the qualities to match up with electric vehicles. Therefore, it is a matter of time before solid-state batteries take over the market.

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